disclaimer: i’m not a coach, but i do my own programming with good results, and my programming is a little different to what i usually see on the internet. it might work for you, maybe not.
A: 1 to 5-8 min max efforts with full z1 rest between (15 mins+). if you’re doing your absolute max you only need to do 2 or 3 of these per workout (3 for 1-3 min, 2 for 5+) because you will not be able to do more, physically or psychologically.
that will raise your ceiling for a given effort, other stuff like repeatability and base fitness just comes naturally from any other riding or racing you do, but make sure you’re enjoying whatever else it is you do on the bike or these max intervals will not feel like they’re worth it and you won’t progress. ultimately, you have to want to do it, or you wont do it.
make some custom workouts for these because zwift doesn’t really offer anything like this and dont use erg mode. i do this stuff outdoors in the summer, i don’t do anything except try to have fun on zwift in the winter, while the weather is bad, some racing, some sporadic efforts, maybe a couple PR attempts. not a lot of structure
some people have success with 40/20s or some variant of closely spaced intervals with short rest periods, i don’t. my personal opinion is that you won’t get better at max efforts if you don’t do max efforts
B: gym. a lot of sticking points in cycling can basically be solved by just literally getting stronger, it’s not really more complicated than that. dont try to combine gym work with hard training on the bike… keep it easy on the bike
3 days of work per week is OK, for the other 4, easy, maybe a little tempo rarely so your ftp doesnt end up completely in the gutter from doing this stupid hyper specialized training program, or a day off if you need it.
keep a training diary, like a physical pen and paper diary and write down how you’re feeling, what training you did each day, how you slept, ate, all that stuff. i think everyone who trains and intends to reach a high level should be doing this
sorry about the length. actually, i really only care about 1 minute power, but if you get really good at 1min power, the rest just kind of follows. you need to do efforts up to 3 mins to train that anyway