Sitting or Standing

Not sure where best to put this question but,
Is it more beneficial to stand while riding than sitting, and if so, what are the reasons, and different (if any) muscles used?

Ride all the ways and find out what’s best for you. Personally when I’m trying to do long hard efforts I stay seated most of the time to control my heart rate. For me standing is for comfort or short increases in power. Your body type and physiology may dictate how sensible it is to spend longer periods out of the saddle.

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Typically, sitting is more energy-efficient. It is easier to do aerobic efforts that use oxygen to harness energy. 30+ ATP are made in a complete reaction of aerobic cellular respiration, and you can sustain this for a long time.
Standing is typically used for higher-output anaerobic efforts, but these efforts are less efficient than aerobic efforts. Part of this is that while standing, you are supporting much more of your weight than when you’re sitting. But the other part is that anaerobic efforts, while more powerful (mostly? due to utilizing your body weight to turn the pedals), are less energy-efficient. Only 6 (I think) ATP is created (per reaction) in anaerobic cellular respiration, compared to the 30+ in aerobic respiration. As Paul said, you have a bit more control seated, too.
Note that you very much can do anaerobic efforts sitting and (possibly) aerobic efforts standing.
I’m not expert by any means, though. I also don’t know what muscles are involved in anything.

Thanks for your input!

I just thought I would throw that question out there, as I read something recently about benefits of standing while riding. Actually, I never finished reading the article!

I rarely stand anyhow, I just change gears to attempt to keep a constant cadence, but that never really seems to happen anyways, so, I just try to enjoy my ride more than anything else.

Do both.
Just be careful and mind your knees.

Standing efforts put a lot stress on your knees so be smart and listen to your body.
While standing can be used for max anaerobic effects, not every standing effort need be a max efforts.

It also depends on the physiology of the rider. See Contador compared to say Ullrich for example.